The research involves artifactual and nonartifactual data.
The method evolved from the tendency to formalize the archaeological process, especially through the work of LR Binford, DL Clarke, and JC Gardin.
Archaeologists are contracted to undertake research to protect SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: distributional archaeology; distribution patterns CATEGORY: term; technique DEFINITION: Simply, the spatial location of archaeological sites or artifacts.
More specifically, a definition of the spatial location of artifacts, structures, or settlement types over a landscape.
CATEGORY: branch DEFINITION: The branch of historical archaeology devoted to the discovery and investigation of the places and artifacts recorded by the Bible and the study of Biblical times and documents.
, culminating perhaps in the discovery of Masada, the Judaean hill fortress where the Jews made their last stand against the Romans in the revolt of AD 66-73 and that was mainly excavated in 1963, has given a new perspective to Old Testament and to studies of ancient Judaism.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: archeology (from archaia"CATEGORY: and "logos"DEFINITION: science knowledge or theory)" branch The scientific study and reconstruction of the human past through the systematic recovery of the physical remains of man's life and cultures.
Artifacts, structures, settlements, materials, and features of prehistoric or ancient peoples are surveyed and / or excavated to uncover history in times before written records.
The study of bones involves calculations of minimum numbers of individuals belonging to each species found; their size, age, sex, stature, dentition, and whether the bones have any marks from implements implying butchering and eating.
The Bible is both a religious and historical work, but how much is myth and how much is history? Where do the people of Israel originally come from?
When and why was the Old Testament written, and by whom? Why were the historical accounts of the Bible written down?
Its scope is, therefore, enormous, ranging from the first stone tools made and fashioned by man over 3 million years ago in Africa, to the garbage thrown into our trash cans and taken to city dumps and incinerators yesterday.
The objectives of archaeology are to construct cultural history by ordering and describing the events of the past, study cultural process to explain the meaning of those events and what underlies and conditions human behavior, and reconstruct past lifeways.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: cultural resource management CATEGORY: branch DEFINITION: A subfield of archaeology which focuses on the preservation of archaeological resources and explicitly recognizes archaeological sites as nonrenewable resources.